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Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: the importance of considering stress

Teixeira, C; de Azevedo, C; Mendl, M; Cipreste, C; Young, R


C Teixeira

C de Azevedo

M Mendl

C Cipreste


It is widely known that the adverse effects of stress must be considered in animal conservation programmes. However, a full consideration of how and where stress occurs in animal conservation programmes has not been undertaken, especially in translocation and reintroduction programmes. The literature concerning these types of programmes shows high levels of mortality, despite researchers' consideration of the effects of stress. However, an analysis of the literature shows that many conservation biologists have only a superficial knowledge about stress. For example, most do not understand the importance of subclinical stress or the fact that the effect of successive stressors can be additive or accumulative. While most conservation biologists know that stress is bad for animal health, few have considered its adverse effects on cognitive abilities, which an animal needs to survive in the wild (e.g. memory). In this paper we conclude with suggestions for improving the efficiency of animal conservation programmes in terms of the number of animals surviving after reintroduction or translocation. The most important conclusion from this review of the literature is that there needs to be a greater interchange of information between animal welfare and animal conservation scientists.


Teixeira, C., de Azevedo, C., Mendl, M., Cipreste, C., & Young, R. (2007). Revisiting translocation and reintroduction programmes: the importance of considering stress. Animal Behaviour, 73(1), 1-13.

Journal Article Type Article
Online Publication Date Oct 18, 2006
Publication Date 2007-01
Deposit Date Jun 2, 2023
Journal Animal Behaviour
Print ISSN 0003-3472
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 73
Issue 1
Pages 1-13