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Estimates of patient doses and kerma-area product monitoring in digital radiography

Kaushik, Chanchal; Singh Sandhu, Inderjeet; Srivastava, A K


Inderjeet Singh Sandhu

A K Srivastava


The application of the kerma-area product (PKA) meter is increased rapidly in dosimetry. This study presents measurements of PKA in adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency protocol for 300 adult patients in digital radiographic procedures. Effective doses (ED) were calculated from PKA measurements and conversion coefficients (E-103/PKA) obtained from the International Commission on radiological protection 103. In skull posteroanterior (PA), skull lateral (LAT), cervical spine anteroposterior (AP), cervical spine LAT, chest PA, abdomen AP, lumbar spine AP, pelvis AP and lumbar spine LAT, the third-quartile PKA values were found to be 0.2, 0.28, 0.33, 0.19, 0.26, 0.95, 0.93, 0.96 and 3.15 Gycm2, and estimated mean EDs were 0.005, 0.008, 0.056, 0.021, 0.037, 0.146, 0.165, 0.097 and 0.258 mSv, respectively. The third-quartile PKA values were suggested as local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs). Results were compared with the diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) of the UK, the European Commission, previously published LDRLs in Greece and China by Metaxas et al. and Zhang and Chu, respectively. The PKA (third-quartile) value for cervical spine AP was 120% higher than UK 2010 DRLs, lumbar spine LAT was 123% higher than LDRLs given by Metaxas et al. and chest PA was 160% higher than UK 2010 DRLs and 225% higher than Metaxas et al. provided LDRLs. The PKA results were lower than the UK, and two studies in Greece by Metaxas et al. except for chest PA, cervical spine AP and lumbar spine LAT showed the need for further optimization. The LDRLs reported in this study may further contribute to establishing future national DRLs.


Kaushik, C., Singh Sandhu, I., & Srivastava, A. K. (2020). Estimates of patient doses and kerma-area product monitoring in digital radiography. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 190(1), 22-30.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 17, 2020
Online Publication Date Jun 3, 2020
Publication Date Aug 3, 2020
Deposit Date Sep 15, 2023
Journal Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Print ISSN 0144-8420
Electronic ISSN 1742-3406
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 190
Issue 1
Pages 22-30
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging; General Medicine; Radiation; Radiological and Ultrasound Technology