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Cyber-enabled tradecraft and contemporary espionage: assessing the implications of the tradecraft paradox on agent recruitment in Russia and China (2023)
Journal Article
Cunliffe, K. S. (in press). Cyber-enabled tradecraft and contemporary espionage: assessing the implications of the tradecraft paradox on agent recruitment in Russia and China. Intelligence and National Security, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2023.2216035

The acquisition of clandestine human sources – or agents – inside Russia and China likely remains the key priority for Western HUMINT agencies, and yet their ability to do this safely is quickly waning. This paper considers the utility of cyberspace... Read More about Cyber-enabled tradecraft and contemporary espionage: assessing the implications of the tradecraft paradox on agent recruitment in Russia and China.

Hard target espionage in the information era : new challenges for the second oldest profession (2021)
Journal Article
Cunliffe, K. (2021). Hard target espionage in the information era : new challenges for the second oldest profession. Intelligence and National Security, 36(7), 1018-1034. https://doi.org/10.1080/02684527.2021.1947555

Reliable and well positioned human sources are essential for the US and its allies in an era of declining relations and rising tensions with China and Russia. The recruitment and handling of spies is essential if the US and its allies are to cool rel... Read More about Hard target espionage in the information era : new challenges for the second oldest profession.