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Role of sex and stature on the biomechanics of normal and loaded walking : implications for injury risk in the military

Gill, NM; Roberts, A; O'Leary, TJ; Liu, A; Hollands, K; Walker, DJ; Greeves, JP; Jones, R

Role of sex and stature on the biomechanics of normal and loaded walking : implications for injury risk in the military Thumbnail


Authors

NM Gill

A Roberts

TJ O'Leary

A Liu

K Hollands

DJ Walker

JP Greeves



Abstract

Load carriage and marching ‘in-step’ are routine military activities associated with lower limb injury risk in service personnel. The fixed pace and stride length of marching typically vary from the preferred walking gait and may result in overstriding. Overstriding increases ground reaction forces and muscle forces. Women are more likely to overstride than men due to their shorter stature. These biomechanical responses to overstriding may be most pronounced when marching close to the preferred walk-to-run transition speed. Load carriage also affects walking gait and increases ground reaction forces, joint moments and the demands on the muscles. Few studies have examined the effects of sex and stature on the biomechanics of marching and load carriage; this evidence is required to inform injury prevention strategies, particularly with the full integration of women in some defence forces. This narrative review explores the effects of sex and stature on the biomechanics of unloaded and loaded marching at a fixed pace and evaluates the implications for injury risk. The knowledge gaps in the literature, and distinct lack of studies on women, are highlighted, and areas that need more research to support evidence-based injury prevention measures, especially for women in arduous military roles, are identified.

Citation

Gill, N., Roberts, A., O'Leary, T., Liu, A., Hollands, K., Walker, D., …Jones, R. (2021). Role of sex and stature on the biomechanics of normal and loaded walking : implications for injury risk in the military. BMJ Military Health, https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001645

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Dec 27, 2020
Online Publication Date Jan 21, 2021
Publication Date Jan 21, 2021
Deposit Date Jan 25, 2021
Publicly Available Date Jan 25, 2021
Journal BMJ Military Health
Print ISSN 2633-3767
Electronic ISSN 2633-3775
Publisher BMJ Publishing Group
DOI https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001645
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001645
Related Public URLs https://militaryhealth.bmj.com/
Additional Information Access Information : This article has been accepted for publication in BMJ Military Health, 2021 following peer review, and the Version of Record can be accessed online at https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001645. © Authors (or their employer(s)) 2021

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