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Creating and validating self-efficacy scales for students

Kitching, JJ; Cassidy, SF; Eachus, P; Hogg, P

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JJ Kitching


Purpose: student radiographers must possess certain abilities to progress in their training; these can be assessed in various ways. Bandura’s social cognitive theory identifies self-efficacy as a key psychological construct with regard to how people adapt to environments where new skills are developed. Use of this construct is common in health care literature but little has been noted within radiographic literature. The authors sought to develop a self-efficacy scale for student radiographers.
Method: the scale was developed following a standard format. An initial pool of 80 items was generated and psychometric analysis was used to reduce this to 68 items. Radiography students drawn from 7 universities were participants (N=198) in validating the scale.
Results: the psychometric properties of the scale were examined using analysis of variance (ANOVA), factor analysis and item analysis. ANOVA demonstrated an acceptable level of known group validity: first-year, second-year, and third-year students all scored significantly differently (P=.035) from one another. Factor analysis identified the most significant factor as confidence in image appraisal. The scale was refined using item and factor analysis to produce the final 25-item scale.
Conclusion This is the first published domain-specific self-efficacy scale validated specifically for student radiographers. In its current format it may have pedagogical utility. The authors currently are extending the work to add to the scale’s validity and embedding it into student training to assess its predictive value.


Kitching, J., Cassidy, S., Eachus, P., & Hogg, P. (2011). Creating and validating self-efficacy scales for students. Radiologic technology, 83(1), 10-19

Journal Article Type Article
Publication Date Sep 1, 2011
Deposit Date Sep 22, 2011
Publicly Available Date Apr 5, 2016
Journal Radiologic Technology
Print ISSN 0033-8397
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 83
Issue 1
Pages 10-19
Publisher URL


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